for the Literature Review is attached
Evidence-based practice is now central to all work. The need for reviews to examine evidence published in existing literature is increasing. This assignment requires you to complete this in the form of a mapping/ scoping review. You are expected to develop a literature review (or a preparatory scoping review) of relevant literature related to your intended project, in the form of a written report, to be submitted via Blackboard to the intended project supervisor for formative feedback and discussion.
You are required to address your agreed (with project supervisor) topic broadly; considering evidence collected using any appropriate study designs to increase your appreciation of the subject through critical appraisal of work done by others.
It is a compulsory assessment and graded and you will be given constructive feedback to support you in your project selection.
The aim of the literature review is to show your supervisor that you have read, and have a good grasp of, the main published work concerning a particular topic or question in your field.
The review should not be simply a description of what others have published in the form of a set of summaries, but should take the form of a critical discussion of strength and limitations of published studies, showing insight and awareness of different methodologies and approaches.
This assessment should contain several key elements (as outlined below). Your work will be assessed against each of these criteria, ensuring (as far as possible), comparability between degree programmes using this module. To pass this coursework, you must be able to provide evidence that you are able to:
Conduct a literature search on a defined topic;
Define and refine search terms;
Identify and use appropriate databases and search engines to retrieve relevant scientific papers;
Justify your selection of the papers included in the review;
Tabulate key information from relevant papers;
Critically assess the strength and limitations of published studies within your own discipline; and
Find gaps in the research or current areas of interest to help you formulate your own research question.
Once you have analysed, synthesized, and evaluated the relevant sources for your topic, you need to think about presenting the material in a way that will best shape your argument and make sense to your readers.
The literature review should include:
1. A short background information about the topic
Keep this concise. Essentially, you should show in your introduction a broad understanding of the history which led to scientific interest in your chosen topic and its relevance to your degree.
2. Review aims
State the purpose of your review
3. of your search strategy and study selection process
Type information sources: databases, experts, funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies, hand-searching, personal files, registries, citation lists of retrieved articles. Discuss with your supervisor about the best data sources for your review.
Determine restrictions: time frame, unpublished data and language. Identify the size of available literature. Depending on your topic, the number of available papers can be massive and most likely you will not be able to summarize all identified papers. Therefore, it is relevant to inform the reader the summary of your search results (or initial scoping exercise). This information can be tabulated or be presented as a text or figure.
Apply inclusion and exclusion criteria
Select final eligible articles
4. Evidence synthesis and critical evaluation of strength and limitations of published studies
The main content of your review must be the critique of evidence found. This should comprise a balanced discussion and evaluation of the strengths, weakness and notable features of the texts you have reviewed. Remember to base your discussion on specific criteria. Good reviews also include other sources to support your evaluation (as always, remember to reference these and use the Harvard style!).
You can choose how to sequence your critique (be informed by what other reviews in your areas have done).
If your critique is more positive than negative, consider presentation of the negative points first and the positive last (and vice versa).
If there are both strengths and weakness for each criterion you use, make a clear decision about what your overall judgement is and make sure that is justified with what you say next. For example, outline the key point that you have found in the literature, note why it is important (biological explanation) and then outline why knowledge (or application) is limited in some way. If appropriate, make clear in your text whether your view is more positive or negative.
Keep this brief. Re-state your overall opinion of the material you have reviewed (as in the introduction). Briefly present some recommendations (as last point of critique) and if necessary qualify or explain further your judgement. This should be scientifically based and balanced.
6. References: Cite as you write and reference using the HARVARD style.
Your search records (See template)
Prisma Flow diagram with final search results. The flow diagram depicts the flow of information through the different phases of a systematic review. It maps out the number of records identified, included and excluded, and the reasons for exclusions
A tabulated summary of key information identified in all the papers you have reviewed. Discuss with your supervisor the best way to tabulate your results.
Any other relevant material (restricted to 2 pages max).
A good literature review needs a clear line of argument. You therefore need to use the critical notes and comments you made whilst doing your reading to express an academic opinion.
Your review must be written in a formal, academic style. Keep your writing clear and concise, avoiding colloquialisms and personal language. You should always aim to be objective and respectful of others’ opinions; this is not the place for emotive language or strong personal opinions. If you thought something was rubbish, use words such as “inconsistent”, “lacking in certain areas” or “based on false assumptions”.
When introducing someone’s opinion, don’t use “says”, but instead an appropriate verb which more accurately reflects this viewpoint, such as “argues”, “claims” or “states”. Use the present tense for general opinions and theories, or the past when referring to specific research or experiments.
Key point to consider: To be critical does not mean to be negative. The intention within this coursework is to encourage you to question information and opinions presented in material which you use professionally, ultimately using this process to present your evaluation or judgement of the research area or series of texts.
Developing your search
A search strategy is a structured organisation of terms used to search a database. The search strategy shows how these terms combine in order to retrieve the best results.
Different databases work in different ways, so you need to adapt your search strategy for each of the databases you use. You may also decide to develop separate search strategies for different aspects of your research.
You will probably need to test your strategies several times, refining them as you start to look at the results you retrieve from the database.
Retrieving too many articles:
Use more specific search term(s)
Add further concepts to strategy
Use limits (but take care with these) for: time period; type of article/study; age group; gender, animal or human etc.
Retrieving too few articles:
Use broader search terms
Use one or more key articles to suggest search terms (check indexing)
Use a wider range of sources
Consider a parallel but similar areas
Types of information source
You are not required to use all available electronic databases in your search. Due to time restrictions, sources may be limited. However, your search strategy should be explicit presented in the text. PubMed and Web of Science are the most popular databases used to find relevant literature. PubMed focuses on biomedical and clinical journals. Web of Science is interdisciplinary and covers all scientific areas. Below is the list of acceptable sources of information to be used in your literature review. Please, discuss with your supervisor about the most suitable databases for your topic.
o PubMed Central (PMC) is a free archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Healths National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM)
Cochrane Library (http://www.cochranelibrary.com/)
o The Cochrane Library is a collection of six databases that contain different types of high-quality, independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making, and a seventh database that provides information about Cochrane groups. Most studies are clinical trials and systematic reviews
o It has particularly strong coverage in pharmaceutical and pharmacological topics. It is also useful for identifying conference abstracts published since 2009.
Web of Science (webofscience.com/)
o Search over 12,000 journals and 148,000 conference proceedings across the sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities
o It is a good tool for health professionals, researchers and students, providing extensive coverage in the areas of fitness, sports medicine, physical therapy, exercise science, sports, and related disciplines.
Physical Education Index
o It covers a wide variety of literature in this discipline, including peer-reviewed journals, report literature, conference proceedings, trade magazines, patents, articles from the popular press, and many other publications. Updated monthly
SBRnet (Sports Business Research Network)
o Full-text and abstract database of journal and book literature on sports medicine, physical therapy, exercise science, sports, fitness, and related disciplines.
o It includes a collection of more than 770 full text nursing & allied health journals dating as far back as 1937, with bibliographic indexing for more than 5,000 additional nursing and related journals. Also included are select health care books, nursing dissertations, conference proceedings, standards of practice, educational software, audiovisuals and book chapters.
o Database from the American Psychological Association covering the academic research and practice literature in psychology and related disciplines (medicine, education, social work, etc.) from over 60 countries in more than 29 languages. It provides indexes to journals, dissertations, book chapters, books, technical reports, and other documents from 1887 to the present.
o It is a database with focus on psychology including sports psychology
AMED (the Allied & Complementary Medicine Database)
o It covers a selection of journals in complementary medicine, palliative care & several professions allied to medicine.
o It is the most comprehensive index of scientific and technical literature of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Campbell Collaboration Library (www.campbellcollaboration.org/lib/)
o It is database on the effects of interventions in crime and justice, education, international development, and social welfare.
o Produced by the Educational Resource Information Center, ERIC provides indexing and abstracting for journal and report literature (1966 to the present) in education and related disciplines.
o It covers over 2500 journals in sociology, both theoretical and applied, and related disciplines including anthropology, economics, education, medicine, community development, philosophy, demography, political science, and social psychology. Articles in 30 different languages from about 55 countries.
o It is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature with smart tools to track, analyze and visualize research.
GENEVA FOUNDATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCHGFMER (http://www.gfmer.ch/000_Homepage_En.htm)
o Established in 2002, the Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) is a non-profit organization that aims to provide health education and research training, creating programmes that can be applied by developing countries and countries in economic transition (26). It also works to establish collaboration between entities from the public and private sectors.
o Its coverage of the applied life sciences includes agriculture, environment, veterinary sciences, applied economics, food science and nutrition.
o It is an open-access website offering information on grey literature (paper) produced in Europe. It includes documents from the fields of science, technology, biomedical science, economics, social science and humanities.
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