Probability Theory and Health Statistics

Part I (approximately 11 pages, total):
Copy and paste the following examples (1-6 below), then respond by classifying each of the following variables as either: nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio (see definitions/examples at end of instructions). Provide a brief explanation where indicated.
1. A researcher studying lifespan categorizes individuals into single, married, divorced, or widowed. What type of variable measurement is this?
2. A cognitive scientist places her subjects into categories based on how anxious they tell her that they are feeling: not anxious, mildly anxious, moderately anxious, and severely anxious, and she uses the numbers 0, 1, 2 and 3 to label categories where lower numbers indicate less anxiety. What type of variable measurement is this? Are the categories mutually exclusive?
3. A Physician diagnoses the presence or absence of disease (i.e., yes or no). What type of variable measurement is this?
4. A person weighing 200 lbs. is considered to be twice as heavy as a person weighing 100 lbs. In this case, what type of measurement is body weight?
5. A nurse takes measurements of body temperature on patients and reports them in units of degrees Farenheit as part of a study. What type of variable measurement is this?
6. Patients rate their experience in the emergency room on a five point scale from poor to excellent (1 = very poor, 2 = not very good, 3 = neither good nor bad, 4 = quite good, and 5 = excellent). What type of variable measurement is this? Is the difference between a 1 and a 2 necessarily the same as the difference between a 3 and a 4? Explain briefly.
Part II: Statistics (1/2 page)
Given what youve learned in this module about the meaning of statistics, choose one of the examples from Part I (1-6), and raise a relevant question of your own that could be answered by a statistician. Then without answering your own question, explain how a pattern could be studied or a useful prediction made based on data that are to be collected.
Part III: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Data (approximately 11 pages)
A health scientist wishes to measure how well participants diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder are coping. Explain how a variable such as coping could be measured quantitatively or qualitatively.
Data can be classified into various types (Norman and Streiner, 2008):
Nominal Variable: consists of named categories with no implied order among the categories
Ordinal Variable: consists of ordered categories where the differences between categories cannot be considered equal
Interval Variable: has equal distances between values, but the zero point is arbitrary
Ratio Variable: has equal intervals between values and a meaningful zero point
Measures of Health Status
People vary with respect to a host of factors, such as gender, age, height, and weight. In a health research study, a variable is any factor being observed or measured.
For example, various measures may be used to compare the Health Status two or more populations during the same period of time (Horton, 2004)
1. Life-Expectancy
2. Under-5 Mortality
3. Health Adjusted Life Expectancy
4. Disability Adjusted Life Years

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